[Intra-abdominal pressure on the functions of abdominal and thoracic organs].

Abstract

A certain pressure exists within closed cavities such as the skull, the abdomen, the thorax, therefore allowing a good supplying to the organs inside. Variations of intraabdominal pressure (IAP) over 10 mmHg will cause an intraabdominal hypertension (IAH) altering both the tissue and cell blood pressure and having an impact on some organs, thus achieving the co-called "abdominal compartment syndrome" (ACS). Intraabdominal pressure increase can lead to some negative effects on both the intra- and extra-abdominal organs such as: cardiovascular, renal, respiratory and digestive systems. ACS is defined as a pathologic status originating from the intraabdominal pressure increase over 20-25 mmHg, values determining a perfusion pressure decrease within the abdominal organs (APP). IAP followed by IAH occurs in ileus, abdominal tumors, intraabdominal hemorrhage and in some morbid conditions: obesity, hepatic cirrhosis with ascites, pregnancy. Central nervous system is affected as an IAP increase will cause an intracranial pressure increase (ICI) with cell perfusion decrease; it occurred by means of the jugular vein compression and the central venous flow reducing. As a conclusion, IAP increase is associated by clinical manifestations with local and general effect finally producing organic failure, too.

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